Dental Poster Journal

Dental Poster Journal (2021), Vol 10, No.1, January Issue

1. POSTER JOURNAL

Surgical guide techniques and treatment planning for dental implant placement

Yunus Ahmed, Jeevan Shetty, K Mahima Shetty, Mudakanna Paiddoddi, Shahid Afrid Ahamed

Year:2021 | Month:January | Volume:10 | Number:1 | Pages No:1-2 | No. of Hits: 421


ABSTRACT

Commentary:
Surgical guides play a crucial role in facilitating the correct angulation and positioning of dental implants1. They serve as a template for the dentist which provide information regarding the positioning of implants before placing it. Surgical guides help in improving the accuracy of implant placement. A multidisciplinary approach involving a prosthodontist and an oral surgeon with close collaboration with a dental laboratory technician is required for optimal positioning of the dental implant2. By following the correct technique, surgical guides boost the confidence of the clinician, avoids damage to the anatomic structures and also prevents any further complications such as fenestrations and dehiscence. There are three types of surgical guides which are tooth- borne, mucosal borne, and bone borne guides. Depending on the case, anyone or a combination of the above guides may be chosen3. For the long term functional success of an implant the correct alignment is also a must which can withstand the occlusal forces4. The most common materials used to make surgical implants includes composite resin or acrylic resin(Auto-polymerizing) type. Polyvinyl siloxane has been recommended for use to adjust areas which have poor contact areas and achieve better seating and stability2. Some precautions to be taken include, placing of fixation pins to avoid the rotation of surgical guide during implant placement, use of bite index is recommended but it may produce some inaccuracy on the occlusal surface of the guide hence it must be assessed. Recent studies have shown that most common errors while using the surgical guide have occurred in the vertical direction. This is reasoned out by stating that it is due to the inability of the implant in reaching its final position due to debris in the implant cavity and due to the compressibility of mucosal tissue resulting in the implant being placed at a more subcrustal level6. Various designs of surgical guides have been classified mainly as non-limiting design, partially limiting the design and completely limiting design. The non- limiting design indicates the ideal position of the implant without any importance on the angulation of the drill. This may result in unsatisfactory angulation of implants possibly leading to a failure. Hence not advocated. They can only be used as imaging indicators. In partially limiting design, the osteotomy drill which is done first using the surgical template, the rest of the osteotomy, and implant placement is done freehand by the clinician. Completely limiting design limits the surgeon in performing the osteotomy in buccolingual and mesiodistal planes only. It comprises of two types, cast based guided surgical guide and CAD/CAM (computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing) based surgical guide. It uses data from the CT scan in the planning of rehabilitation using implants. The completely limiting design is considered to be better in terms of clinical outcome, a however large number of clinicians still use the partially limiting design as it is cost effective7. In today’s times of prosthodontically driven implants, surgical guides play a valuable role in serving as an adjunct to implant placement2. With the correct treatment planning using latest technologies such as stereolithography, CAD/CAM and computer-assisted tomography (CT) predictable clinical outcomes of implant placement may be achieved5.

Keywords: Implants, Surgical, Guide, Stereolithography, CAD/CAM.

How to cite this article: Ahmed Y, Shetty J, Shetty KM, Paidoddi M, Ahamed SA. - Surgical guide techniques and treatment planning for dental implant placement , PosterJ 2021; 10(1):01.

Source of support: Nil.

DOI: 10.15713/ins.dpj.083

Conflict of interest: None declared


How to cite this article: Ahmed Y, Shetty J, Shetty KM, Paidoddi M, Ahamed SA. - Surgical guide techniques and treatment planning for dental implant placement , PosterJ 2021; 10(1):01.


2. POSTER JOURNAL

Decoding oral cancer with light- A review

Anagha P. Bhelonde , Ajay R. Bhoosreddy, Karan R. Shah

Year:2021 | Month:January | Volume:10 | Number:1 | Pages No:1-2 | No. of Hits: 441


ABSTRACT

Commentary:
Oral cancer is one of dreadful disease affecting humankind. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is 6th most common malignant disorder and major causes of mortality worldwide. The oral cancer commonly arises from premalignant lesions, the detection of cancer in this early stage can decrease the morbidity and mortality rate1. Overall, 30-35% of global head and neck cancer occur in India (by Mohammad et al). Despite the ease of oral examination of malignant lesions only 40% cases are diagnosed in early stages and survival rate has not been improved. Unfortunately, the OSCC does not have a better prognosis till date and the survival rate of patients with OSCC has not improved in the past 50 years. As 50% of OSCCs arise from potentially malignant disorders, thus early identification of cancer can improve the survival rate. If the disease is diagnosed in the early stage, the rate of better prognosis would increase significantly. The standard method for diagnosing potentially malignant and malignant lesions is by oral examination and confirming suspected lesion by biopsy. However, survival rate increases up to 83% in early detection. In cancer diagnostic field, numerous screening and adjunctive diagnostic adjuncts have been introduced till date. Some of these techniques are cytological methods, vital tissue staining, histological, molecular and optical techniques. Among these Optical techniques are in recent fore front. They are mainly depending on light tissue interactions2,3.

In latest era, optical techniques have been illuminated in cancer diagnostics which uses light for diagnosis. Optical coherence tomography, Chemiluminescence and florescence spectroscopy are newly developed adjuncts. These optical techniques provide noninvasive, real time images and uses backscattered reflections to produce images2-4.

Fluorescence spectroscopy modality is based on optical spectroscopy characteristic features of tissue and uses Native Cellular Fluorescence (NCF) to distinguish normal tissue from neoplastic tissue. Some cellular and molecular changes are observed in neoplastic tissues, such as the collagen degradation and loss of elastin cross-linkages, large increase in number of inflammatory cells in the tissues, an increased nucleus-cytoplasmic ratio, hyperplasia of the epithelium, and increased concentrations of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, can lead to the loss of fluorescence (LOF), hence these areas appears dark under velscope light. Lesions showing LOF or that were seen as red/orange areas under light of specific wavelength were considered to be suspicious sites (positive VEL)1.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a optical imaging modality and works on the principle of white light Michelson interferometry, similar to Ultrasonography. Hence comparable to Sonography. Different versions of OCT are, Original version Time Domain OCT (TD-OCT), TD-OCT further modified as Spectral Domain (SD-OCT) and Swept Source (SS-OCT). OCT has Sensitivity 83% and specificity 98% according to Fomina at al2.

Luminescence means emission of light. When a molecule in excited state relaxes to ground state and the energy is provided by chemical reaction a phenomenon called as Chemiluminescence. Commercially available Chemiluminescence diagnostic kit are- Microlux DL, Vizilite. Vizilite kitcontains-1% acetic acid, capsule aspirin and inner glass vial which breaks easily on activation of capsule with Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Manipulation of capsule leads to emission of light. Blue white light emitted is absorbed by normal mucosa and reflected by neoplastic cells, hence the term “acetowhite” lesions.

This poster will highlight these newer optical techniques can be used for screening of potentially malignant and malignant lesions of oral cavity.

Keywords: Chemiluminescence; Fluorescence Spectroscopy; Optical Coherence Tomography; Optical Diagnostic Aid.

How to cite this article: Bhelonde AP,Bhoosreddy AR, Shah KR. - Decoding oral cancer with light- A review , PosterJ 2021; 10(1):02.

Source of support: Nil.

DOI: 10.15713/ins.dpj.084

Conflict of interest: None declared


How to cite this article: Bhelonde AP,Bhoosreddy AR, Shah KR. - Decoding oral cancer with light- A review , PosterJ 2021; 10(1):02.


3. POSTER JOURNAL

Virtopsy, think before you cut- A review

Dipika Utekar, Karan Shah, Ajay Bhoosreddy

Year:2021 | Month:January | Volume:10 | Number:1 | Pages No:1-2 | No. of Hits: 455


ABSTRACT

Commentary:
Virtopsy is less intrusive radiographic image directed virtual autopsy. Conventional autopsy symbolizes old- style way of postmortem investigations in human beings. However, recent radiographic techniques can complement and might somewhat substitute conventional autopsy. This procedure will aid and be helpful as evidence in forensics and help in court for solving few cases1. With the changing pattern of investigation, it is important to adapt with these modifications. Newer advancements in the field of diagnosis and imaging will enhance the use and applications of various radiographic techniques in forensics. Virtopsy comes under forensic radiology. It mainly helps in the following-

  1. Identification
  • Gender
  • Body length
  • Features (dental, intracorporeal)

  1. Documentation
  • Foreign objects (foreign bodies, bullets etc.)
  • Injuries and organ disease (to determine cause and manner of death)
  • Vitality of sustained injuries & wound-age estimation
  • Forensic reconstruction

  1. Education
  2. Research

Documentation, to examine, and to clarify scientific medical conclusions in living beings and departed people, is the main aim of forensic medicine. This will further imply process in the court for legal calls. To find out the reason and nature of death in departed souls is the main goal of investigations. Some other goals are to assess the vitality of the unrelenting wounds, and to formulate a forensic reestablishment created on the findings2.

Different imaging modalities could be used to examine and assess different sites and anatomical structures. It has been observed that even though there is lot of technological advancements in recent years, the application of radiographic imaging modalities is still under progress and needs more future prospective for development. For two dimensional and three dimensional evaluation of autopsy findings Computed Tomography (CT) is the most used or accurate modality to examine conditions like fractures, pathologies like embolism, emphysema and gross tissue injury1. Soft tissue injury or wounds can be examined well by using MRI- Magnetic Resonance Imaging technique for cases like gunshot in head and neck region, trauma like accidents causing fractures of maxillofacial skeleton etc2,3.

As the technology is advancing it’s important for forensic researchers to understand the few drawbacks of certain imaging modalities used in this field. It has been reported that three dimensional radiographic techniques will enhance the examination and evaluation of finer pathologies or conditions. Hence, Computed Tomography (CT) has been widely recommended for visualization and study of fracture or trauma cases. A number of modalities like Computed Tomography (CT) have been proved to be useful in forensic medicine for documentation of findings. Organ tissue injury, various other organ diseases or conditions can be very well visualized using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Yet the differences and comparisons in various findings before and after autopsy or post-mortem results needs to be systematically studied and more research is important in this field. The examination, evaluation, assessment and analysis of findings using radiological modalities like CT and MRI will be useful for researchers in the long run. The evaluation of illness, injury and death in the common inhabitants happens to be the future scope or future applications of this method2.

The present poster focuses on use of radiographic imaging in evaluating the possible reason and time of death, thereby supplementing autopsy results. Also, radiological comparison of all the findings before and after autopsy can be carried out radiologically4. Hence, it can be concluded that this technique is not dependent on the researcher, its unbiased and non-invasive technique and will help to greater extent in legal cases investigations & can act as invaluable help to forensic pathologist.

Virtopsy is investigator independent, objective and non-invasive technique that has and will make an objective as well as subjective improvement in forensic investigations & can act as a valuable help to forensic pathologist2.

Keywords: Autopsy; Forensics, Investigations; Non-invasive; Radiography; Virtopsy

How to cite this article: Utekar D, Shah K, Bhoosreddy A. - Virtopsy, think before you cut- A review,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):03.

Source of support: Nil.

DOI: 10.15713/ins.dpj.085

Conflict of interest: None declared


How to cite this article: Utekar D, Shah K, Bhoosreddy A. - Virtopsy, think before you cut- A review,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):03.


4. POSTER JOURNAL

Cage the crab with light- A Review

Dipika Utekar, Ajay Bhoosreddy, Chetan Bhadage

Year:2021 | Month:January | Volume:10 | Number:1 | Pages No:1-2 | No. of Hits: 418


ABSTRACT

Commentary:
In developing countries with high consumption of tobacco-related products, the incidence of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and oral cancer is high. In such cases, the gold standard diagnostic aid remains to be a histopathological examination based on tissue biopsy. Early diagnosis and treatment aids in either preventing the malignant transformation of an OPMD or in halting the progression of oral cancer. Also, an early diagnosis would aid in improving the overall quality of life of the patient, while significantly reducing any financial burden related to treatments of cancer1. Since not all cases can be subjected to a biopsy due to a wide range of contradicting factors including systemic conditions (bleeding disorders), a clinical examination is still a vital tool for the initial assessment of a suspected case. Given the limitation of a simple visual examination , several light-based oral screening techniques have been introduced which increases the capability to distinguish benign lesions and malignant lesions, dysplastic and non dysplastic changes2.

Keywords: Microlux light, Oral Cancer; Premalignant Lesions; Tissue Autofluorescence; Vizilite, Velscope.

How to cite this article: Bramhe P, Bhoosreddy A, Bhadage C. - Cage the crab with light- A Review,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):04.

Source of support: Nil.

DOI: 10.15713/ins.dpj.086

Conflict of interest: None declared


How to cite this article: Bramhe P, Bhoosreddy A, Bhadage C. - Cage the crab with light- A Review,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):04.


5. POSTER JOURNAL

Ninja warriors Role of immune evasion mechanisms in cancer immunotherapy

R Keerthika, Mala Kamboj, Anjali Narwal, Anju Devi

Year:2021 | Month:January | Volume:10 | Number:1 | Pages No:1-2 | No. of Hits: 443


ABSTRACT

Commentary:
Cancer is considered a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The immune system defends the body against diseases including cancer through both the innate and the acquired immunity1,2. In cancer, the host immune system perceives the mutated cancerous tissue protein to be an antigen, and in response generates an immune response. Several factors determine the immune response including the individual’s immune status, genetic predispositions, systemic conditions, and diseases3,4. The immune system is considered a double-edged sword, as it can both inhibit and enhance tumor progression. In early stages, as the immune system recognizes the tumor as an antigen, it produces the antigenic response attempting to curb the initiation of cancer. On the contrary, during the advanced stages of cancer, the normal stromal cells surrounding the tumor cells including the immune cells (myeloid-derived suppressor cells, T regulatory cells, tumor activated macrophages, tumor activated neutrophils) aid in the progression of the tumor by countering the anti-cancer defense system. These tumor-promoting cells and stroma in the proximity of the cancer cells are labeled as the tumor microenvironment. The tumor microenvironment can modulate the host immune system to allow the cancer cells to evade the antigenic response by either attenuating the antigenicity of the cancer cells or by suppressing the antigenic response. Additional obstacles in the activation of an immune response are due to the upregulation of immune checkpoints and their corresponding ligands5. The tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells also are a major determinant of the effectiveness of the immune response generated6.

Compared to chemo, radiotherapy, cancer immunomodulation is a relatively less explored form of therapeutic strategy with its own set of challenges4. As we know, “Early diagnosis is the mainstay for better prognosis.” Thus, adequate knowledge of the process of the immune evasion and its role in carcinogenesis will aid in formulating early effective immunomodulation based therapeutic strategy capable of overcoming the tumor resistance4. Future researchers could potentially categorize cancer based on their antigenic and immunogenic nature which in turn could be crucial to customize treatment strategies potentially enhancing the overall patient prognosis and quality of life5.

The present poster provides an overview of the current understanding in cancer-associated immune evasion and also recapitulates the mechanistic strategies that have been studied in tumor progression2.

Keywords: Anti-tumor Immunity; Cell-cell Fusion; Immune Checkpoints; Immune Evasion; Tumor Microenvironment.

How to cite this article: R Keerthika, Kamboj M, Narwal A, Devi A. - Ninja warriors Role of immune evasion mechanisms in cancer immunotherapy,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):05.

Source of support: Nil.

DOI: 10.15713/ins.dpj.087

Conflict of interest: None declared


How to cite this article: R Keerthika, Kamboj M, Narwal A, Devi A. - Ninja warriors Role of immune evasion mechanisms in cancer immunotherapy,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):05.


6. POSTER JOURNAL

Saliva in the “omics” era – A promising tool in the early diagnosis of oral cancer

Surenthar M, Vineeth R, Jimsha VK, Srinivasan SV, Jonathan Daniel M

Year:2021 | Month:January | Volume:10 | Number:1 | Pages No:1-2 | No. of Hits: 455


ABSTRACT

Commentary:
The term ‘Saliva’ refers to mixed fluid in the oral cavity. It is a vital component of the oral environment. It plays a major role in maintaining the health of both the soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity. Saliva is essential for several functions including mastication, deglutition, and speech. The whole saliva, which is a mixture of resting and stimulated saliva is composed of inorganic and organic components like proteins, amino acids, amylase, immunoglobulins, urea, uric acid, electrolytes, etc1. These components in saliva paved the way to the concept of salivary biomarkers. Salivary biomarkers are defined as cellular, molecular and biochemical characteristics by which normal or abnormal processes can be recognized and monitored. Salivary biomarkers are classified based on biomolecular profiles, such as DNA, RNA, and protein biomarkers, and based on disease state as, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Technologies that can measure the role and actions of various types of cellular molecules, such as genes, proteins, or small metabolites, are generally named by appending the suffix “-OMICS”. Salivaomics is an emerging field in the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases2. Salivaomics deals with five diagnostic alphabets namely proteome, transcriptome (mRNA), microRNA (miRNA), metabolome, and microbiome which are regarded as the basic omic constituents. Salivaomics is a promising tool especially in the field of oral cancer where it offers a robust alternative for invasive investigations while guiding the clinicians in the early diagnosis of carcinogenic changes at the molecular level thus improving the survival rates3. The different salivary analytes are extracted from saliva for diagnostic purposes using the following methods:

  1. Non-organic compounds are extracted by Flame photometry, atomic absorption, and spectro- photometry,
  2. Proteins and peptides are by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ELISA, 2D Electrophoresis, Mass spectrometry, and
  3. DNAs, mRNAs, microRNA are by PCR, qPCR, HPLC, and microarrays4.


The proteome consists of defensin-1, p53, alpha-amylase, IL8, IL6, IL1, TNFA, IL1B, CD44, MMP2,9. Transcriptome includes DUSP1, H3F3A, IL1B, IL8, SAT, S100P whereas miR135, miR300a, miR31 are the substitutes of MicroRNA. Phenylalanine, valine, Lactic acid, Taurine, and Piperidine constitute metabolome and Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Prevotella melaninogenicus, Streptococcus mitis are the constituents of the microbiome5. The basic pathophysiology behind these omic constituents in carcinogenesis are alterations in gene expression, cellular DNA, mRNA transcripts, protein status, and metabolites6. The merits of this novel technology include, that it is inexpensive, non-invasive, cost-effective, possible early detection of carcinomas, there is a convenient medium for multisampling and safe for health professionals compared to blood and serum and the demerits are lack of standardization procedures like sample collection and storage, variability in the levels of salivary biomarkers and validation in oral inflammatory conditions. The specificity and sensitivity of salivaomics in detecting oral cancer are 91% respectively7. Thus, to conclude, salivaomics could potentially provide vital diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for early diagnosis and effective monitoring of the oral cancer disease status.

Keywords: Biomarker; Microbiome; Oral Cancer; Proteome; Salivaomics; Transcriptome.

How to cite this article: Surenthar M, Vineeth R, Jimsha VK, Srinivasan SV, Jonathan DM. - Saliva in the “omics” era - A promising tool in the early diagnosis of oral cancer,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):06.

Source of support: Nil.

DOI: 10.15713/ins.dpj.088

Conflict of interest: None declared


How to cite this article: Surenthar M, Vineeth R, Jimsha VK, Srinivasan SV, Jonathan DM. - Saliva in the “omics” era - A promising tool in the early diagnosis of oral cancer,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):06.


7. POSTER JOURNAL

Artificial intelligence- The robo radiologists

Aishwarya Kulkarni, Karan Shah, Ajay Bhoosreddy

Year:2021 | Month:January | Volume:10 | Number:1 | Pages No:1-2 | No. of Hits: 419


ABSTRACT

Commentary:
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science dedicated to the development of computer algorithms to accomplish tasks traditionally associated with human intelligence, such as the ability to learn and solve problems which includes machine learning – detection of normal from abnormal by hand labelled images by a method which predicts unknown reliance between input and output variables. When such reliance is observed, it can estimate the future output by recognizing the aimed function that best describes the behaviour governing the input- output patterns, representation learning – classification of data without hand labelled images, deep learning – subset of representation learning, it is normal representation of specific image by large number of normal exams1-3.
AI programs include:

  1. Clinical decision support system- are designed to support and assisting clinicians in their everyday tasks that rely on the analysis of facts and knowledge. Currently, this is done by interactive user interface with voice control commands that assist the clinician and health care professionals to work efficiently by saving time and cost in dental practice to both patients and dentists3,4.
  2. Artificial neural networks - Image analysis inspired by the biological nervous system. It is a algorithm made of large number of connected functioning nodal points that process data by their automated human brain like response to external inputs.
  3. Fuzzy logic – permits ambiguity and analysis of shades of black and white.
  4. Evolutionary computation - optimisation algorithms based on natural biological evolution.
  5. Hybrid intelligent system – rapidly adapting to changing environments1–3,5.


The applications are multifarious in Maxillofacial Radiology: it reduces interobserver variability and provides an open- ended automated interpretation of radiographs. Hybrid intelligent system, evolutionary computation, etc. helps in determining the infinite no of deviations from usual appearances of structures that may have gone unnoticed by human eyes in almost all radiography procedures thus is a valuable help in incidental findings, detecting exact position of minor apical foramen, working length determination in RCT procedures, not so clear vertical root fractures. Logicon Caries Detector is helpful in identification and characterizing of proximal caries. Neural networks help in age estimation, dental biometrics using meta heuristic algorithms, optimization of CAD/CAM, virtual reality system, bio printing of tissues, intra-oral scanners, cameras, 3D orthodontic evaluation and monitoring, hard and soft tissue tracing, customized aligners. Deep learning helps in early detection of periodontal changes, bone loss, peri-implantitis and changes in bone density via radiographs, radiomics, dose optimization, development of imaging bio banks are achieved using CDSS (clinical decision support system)1,3,5–8.

The current limitations include huge data preparation, electronic record is mandate in which safety is issue, training of radiologist, algorithms may not adapt to new machines and imaging software, artefacts may cause faulty interpretation, etc1,9. So will AI replace radiologists? the simple answer is: NO. It demands more research and trials for such assumption. AI is a brainchild of humans, to be used as adjunct. But, radiologists’ lives are going to certainly change in this generation of artificial intelligence.

Take home message: Artificial Intelligence assists radiologists in decision making and eases the radiologist’s job rather than taking it away.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Maxillofacial Radiology; Machine Learning; Representation Learning; Deep Learning.

How to cite this article: Kulkarni A, Shah K, Bhoosreddy A, - Artificial intelligence- The robo radiologists,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):07.

Source of support: Nil.

DOI: 10.15713/ins.dpj.089

Conflict of interest: None declared


How to cite this article: Kulkarni A, Shah K, Bhoosreddy A, - Artificial intelligence- The robo radiologists,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):07.


8. POSTER JOURNAL

Odontogenesis and its glitches - Role of cancer stem cells

Siva Kumar N, Deepty Bansal, Renu Rathee, Anjali Narwal, Mala Kamboj, Anju Devi

Year:2021 | Month:January | Volume:10 | Number:1 | Pages No:1-2 | No. of Hits: 437


ABSTRACT

Commentary:
Odontogenic lesions are a group of heterogenous pathologies derived from oral epithelium, ectomesenchyme and/or mesenchymal elements1. Despite advancements in diagnostics and therapeutics, the molecular pathogenesis and mechanism of their clinical behavior are still unclear. Recently, cancer stem cells (CSC) with properties of pluripotency, self-renewal and continuous differentiation have been encountered in few odontogenic cysts and tumors showing aggressive clinical course2. Few researchers have hypothesized that these CSC may arise from embryonic stem cells that helps in the formation of normal odontogenic apparatus3. CSCs comprises small population (<2%) of tumor mass showing similar characteristic features like embryonic stem cells and are considered as the important factor in growth and metastasis of tumor. CSC exhibit steady proliferation of cell which confers to the recurrence and resistance to routine adjuvant therapies4. In the early developmental stages, embryonic stem cells release certain transcription factors for the maintenance of self-renewal properties. Similarly, CSCs also expresses specific nuclear and membranous transcription factors, which has three important properties such as self- renewal, colony formation and pluripotency. Immunohistochemical localisation of these transcription factors could be helpful in the isolation of CSC in its associated lesions. Numerous pluripotent stem cells markers have been reported in the literature namely OCT4, SOX2, NANOG and c-Myc; out of which SOX2 and OCT4 are reported to detect stemness in normal odontogenesis as well as odontogenic cyst and tumors5. SOX2 (sex- determining region -SRY box 2) is a progenitor nuclear marker that has been explored well in the primitive dental tissue as well as in odontogenic lesions6. Presence of SOX2 has been considered to be very important for the maintenance of stemness by embryonic stem cells and it has a crucial role in self-renewal, proliferation and pluripotency. OCT4 is an another nuclear stem cell marker which is encoded by the POU5F1 gene mostly found in undifferentiated cells that frequently associated in the tumorigenesis. Cytoplasmic expression of OCT4 was reported to be observed in the differentiating cells while the nuclear expression in primitive immature cells exhibiting “stemness”6. CD44 is a membranous glycoprotein molecule involved in cell signalling, proliferation and migration, which makes it a better stem cells marker. It also plays an important role in angiogenesis, growth regulation and cytokine presentation of cells. Upregulation of CD44 has been postulated to have a direct effect on tumor progression and metastatic phenotype in odontogenic tumors as well as in other types of cancers7. These molecular markers can be potentially employed to determine the tumor behavior as well as their prognosis4,5,6,7. Detection of CSC could help in early detection and differentiation of odontogenic carcinomas. Most importantly, immunohistochemical profiling of CSC in aggressive odontogenic lesions could pave way for the development of tailored treatment procedures and better outcomes for the patients. In this poster, we have portrayed the reliability and possible pathway of few stem cell markers which are associated with CSC in vigorous odontogenic cysts and tumors.

Keywords: Cancer Stem Cells; Odontogenesis; Odontogenic Lesions; OCT4; SOX2.

How to cite this article: Naina SK,Bansal D,Rathee R,Narwal A,Kamboj M,Devi A. - Odontogenesis and its glitches - Role of cancer stem cells ,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):08.

Source of support: Nil.

DOI: 10.15713/ins.dpj.090

Conflict of interest: None declared


How to cite this article: Naina SK,Bansal D,Rathee R,Narwal A,Kamboj M,Devi A. - Odontogenesis and its glitches - Role of cancer stem cells ,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):08.


9. POSTER JOURNAL

Lasers in Pediatric Dentistry

Vishal Sharma, Adhishree Singh Chib, Shalini Garg, Sakshi Joshi, Anil Gupta, Ankit Srivastava

Year:2021 | Month:January | Volume:10 | Number:1 | Pages No:1-2 | No. of Hits: 381


ABSTRACT

Commentary:
The field of medical sciences integrated the use of lasers in the middle of the 1970’s for procedures related to soft tissues. In the 1980s, oral and maxillofacial surgeons began the use of laser, [carbon dioxide (CO2)] in their clinical practice to treat oral lesions1. In the year 1987, the first laser used for dental procedures was developed and approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1990 was (Nd: YAG) neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser and since then, lasers technology has proceeded remarkably1.

Keywords: Lasers, Lasers for Diagnosis, Hard Tissue Applications of Lasers, Soft Tissue Applications of Lasers.

How to cite this article: Sharma V, Chib AS, Garg S, Joshi S , Gupta A, Srivastava A. - Lasers in Pediatric Dentistry ,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):09.

Source of support: Nil.

DOI: 10.15713/ins.dpj.091

Conflict of interest: None declared


How to cite this article: Sharma V, Chib AS, Garg S, Joshi S , Gupta A, Srivastava A. - Lasers in Pediatric Dentistry ,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):09.


10. POSTER JOURNAL

Know Nano in Dentistry

Surya Teja Chunduri, Vidya Bhat, Sanath Kumar Shetty, Rajesh Shetty, Savitha Dandekeri, Mallika Shetty

Year:2021 | Month:January | Volume:10 | Number:1 | Pages No:1-2 | No. of Hits: 386


ABSTRACT

Commentary:
Nanotechnology is the art and science of engineering material on a scale of fewer than 100 nm1. One nanometer is 1 billionth of a meter. For easy comparison of nanometer to a meter, it is the same as the size of a marble to the size of the earth2. The word “nano” is borrowed from the Greek term which means “dwarf” and the word nanotechnology was coined by prof. Kerie E. Drexler3. Though this technology sounds relatively new, humans have been using the technique of shaping the matter since ages, such as processing of vulcanized rubber and sharpening of dental instruments these are all based on manipulating the particles at the molecular or atomic level.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, Nanomaterials, Dentistry.

How to cite this article: Chunduri ST,Bhat Vidya,Shetty SK,Shetty R,Dandekeri S,Shetty M. - Know Nano in Dentistry ,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):10.

Source of support: Nil.

DOI: 10.15713/ins.dpj.092

Conflict of interest: None declared


How to cite this article: Chunduri ST,Bhat Vidya,Shetty SK,Shetty R,Dandekeri S,Shetty M. - Know Nano in Dentistry ,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):10.


11. POSTER JOURNAL

Smart materials- Making pediatric dentistry bio-smart

Harshitha K, Tasneem Shajahan, Ajay Rao.H.T, Sham.S.Bhat, Sharan.S.Sargod

Year:2021 | Month:January | Volume:10 | Number:1 | Pages No:1-2 | No. of Hits: 460


ABSTRACT

Commentary:
The world of pedodontia is now revolving around technologies. The recent advances in field of materials have created opportunities for a their application in bio-medical field. The most application is in dental restoratives. These are materials with properties that could be modified in a controlled way by various stimuli such as temperature,stress, pH, electric or magnetic fields, and moisture. Some of these mimic tooth structure such as enamel or dentin and hence biomimetic. The smartness of the smart material include retrogress back to the original state after the removal of the stimulus1.

Keywords: Smart material; Smart Behavior; Self Healing; Shape Memory.

How to cite this article: Harshitha K, Shajahan T, Rao AHT, Bhat SS, Sargod SS. - Smart materials- Making pediatric dentistry bio-smart ,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):11.

Source of support: Nil.

DOI: 10.15713/ins.dpj.093

Conflict of interest: None declared


How to cite this article: Harshitha K, Shajahan T, Rao AHT, Bhat SS, Sargod SS. - Smart materials- Making pediatric dentistry bio-smart ,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):11.


12. POSTER JOURNAL

Electrically assisted enhanced remineralisation- Myth or reality?

Gopika Pradeep, Shamna K.T, Sham.S.Bhat, Sharan.S.Sargod

Year:2021 | Month:January | Volume:10 | Number:1 | Pages No:1-2 | No. of Hits: 386


ABSTRACT

Commentary:
Dental cavities are not mere a stationary process of tooth loss but rather it’s a dynamic process; with a constant conflict between the demineralization and remineralization process. Various acids produced by the microbial flora leads to the dissolution of minerals such as calcium and phosphates from the tooth surface as well as sub-surface leading to demineralization of the tooth and ultimately leading to cavity formation1. Saliva acts as a natural healer due to its buffering action on acids as well as a reservoir of minerals for the remineralization of the tooth surface2.This remineralisation is a natural repair process for incipient lesions and contribute in restoring strength and function of the tooth. A number of new remineralization strategies have been recently developed or commercialized. One of the novel clinical method of caries remineralization that has been introduced is the Electrically Assisted Enamel Remineralisation3.

Keywords: Caries; Electrically Assisted Enhanced Remineralization; Iontophoresis; Minerals; Painless.

How to cite this article: Pradeep G , Shamna K T , Bhat SS, Sargod SS. - Electrically assisted enhanced remineralisation- Myth or reality?, PosterJ 2021; 10(1):12.

Source of support: Nil.

DOI: 10.15713/ins.dpj.094

Conflict of interest: None declared


How to cite this article: Pradeep G , Shamna K T , Bhat SS, Sargod SS. - Electrically assisted enhanced remineralisation- Myth or reality?, PosterJ 2021; 10(1):12.


13. POSTER JOURNAL

Biosmart Materials: An Amelioration in Dentistry

Kishan Agarwal, Madhur Garg, Praveen Singh Samant, Shobhit Pratap Singh

Year:2021 | Month:January | Volume:10 | Number:1 | Pages No:1-2 | No. of Hits: 369


ABSTRACT

Commentary:
Most conventional dental materials have a neutral & passive existence in the oral environment. The majority of them were thought to be designed in a way that they could last for the more extended period in the oral cavity, permitting them to be utilized for a longer period1. There is no single material in dentistry that is ideal and satisfies all the necessities of an ideal material2. Science and innovation in the 21st century depends vigorously on the advancement of new materials that are relied upon to react to the changes in the environment and show their capacities as indicated by the ideal conditions3. As the mission for an ideal remedial material proceeds, a more current age of materials was presented4. Smart materials are a response to the necessity of environment amicable and responsive materials which modify their properties to perform explicit functions.

Keywords: Biocompatible Materials; Bioesthetics; Dental Materials; Smart Materials.

How to cite this article: Agarwal K, Garg M, Samant PS, Singh SP. - Biosmart Materials: An Amelioration in Dentistry,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):13.

Source of support: Nil.

DOI: 10.15713/ins.dpj.095

Conflict of interest: None declared


How to cite this article: Agarwal K, Garg M, Samant PS, Singh SP. - Biosmart Materials: An Amelioration in Dentistry,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):13.


14. POSTER JOURNAL

Not just repair, it regenerates : PRF

Madhur Garg, Kishan Agarwal, Praveen Singh Samant, Shobhit Pratap Singh

Year:2021 | Month:January | Volume:10 | Number:1 | Pages No:1-2 | No. of Hits: 358


ABSTRACT

Commentary:
Regenerative dentistry is a gripping and developing field and has been recommended as a paradigm shift in the management of oral wounds. The growing clinical interest to accelerate the healing kinetics using platelet derived products has led to the evolution of platelet derived concentrates. A new genera of platelet concentrates called ""Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF)"" has been chronicled as an impetus in the therapeutic modality for dental diseases with its application in diverse disciplines in dentistry and more recently in Regenerative Endodontics and Endodontic Emergencies. Choukroun et al. first described PRF; has upped the ante in wound healing by providing 100% biocompatibility and acting as a natural scaffold enriched with growth factors for restoration and reconstitution of the lost architecture and function of tissues be it periodontal, periapical or be it bone regeneration. First application of PRF was done to improve bone healing in cases of implants1.

Keywords: Platelet Concentrates; Platelet Rich Fibrin; Regenerative.

How to cite this article: Garg M , Agarwal K , Samant PS, Singh SP. - Not just repair, it regenerates :PRF, PosterJ 2021; 10(1):14.

Source of support: Nil.

DOI: 10.15713/ins.dpj.096

Conflict of interest: None declared


How to cite this article: Garg M , Agarwal K , Samant PS, Singh SP. - Not just repair, it regenerates :PRF, PosterJ 2021; 10(1):14.


15. POSTER JOURNAL

Endodontic management of traumatized teeth: A case report

Ashwini P Bhangale1, Meenal N Gulve

Year:2021 | Month:January | Volume:10 | Number:1 | Pages No:1-2 | No. of Hits: 286


ABSTRACT

Commentary:
Trauma to the anterior facial hard and soft tissues causes fracture or displacement of the teeth which impairs the aesthetic and the function of the tissue. A dental injury causes impairment of not just the tooth but affects the supporting structures too. The frequency of dental traumatic injuries has substantially increased and is often encountered in routine dental practice. Road-side accidents, physical abuses, sports activities, are the major reasons accountable for such injuries1,2.

Keywords: Dental Trauma; Endodontic Management; Luxation.

How to cite this article: Bhangale AP, Gulve MN. - Endodontic management of traumatized teeth: A case report,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):15.

Source of support: Nil.

DOI: 10.15713/ins.dpj.097

Conflict of interest: None declared


How to cite this article: Bhangale AP, Gulve MN. - Endodontic management of traumatized teeth: A case report,PosterJ 2021; 10(1):15.